Totalitarianism & Vedic Totalism:
“Texas finally joined the Union on December 29, 1845. It became the 28th state by a joint resolution of both houses of Congress.”
In 1821, the territory of what is now Mexico, New Mexico, California, and Texas revolted against Spanish rule, declaring independence as the Empire of Mexico. This new government was concerned about populating a barren area of what is now Texas, then called North Mexico. As such, it invited settlers from the United States to establish colonies, via land grants, in that lawless territory. They were allowed to own land, but not without preconditions. Almost entirely of Protestant stock, they had to swear an oath of allegiance and also declare, in writing (in their purchase agreements) that they were now citizens of Mexico and had converted themselves to the Catholic faith.
Mexico utilized sleazy American capitalists (who first declared fealty to Mexico) in the capacity of empresarios; they facilitated, oversaw, and collected on the land grants and mortgage payments. Indentured servitude of the black race was allowed in this territory, although, a few years later, the Empire of Mexico gave way to a liberal, constitutional republic which frowned upon slavery. Still, it continued the same program of land grants in North Mexico. Many rogues, adventurers, homesteaders, and depraved personalities flooded from the States into this rough territory in order to take advantage of what it had to offer, despite the ever-present threat of very savage attacks by vicious Comanches.
In due course, over twenty-five thousand American settlers populated North Mexico, outnumbering the indigenous Mexicans ten-to-one. This alarmed Mexico, and, in 1830, it outlawed any further colonization. That created tension between the Mexican government and its Texas immigrants. That tension was exacerbated exponentially when Generalissimo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna overthrew the government in 1834 and established an oppressive dictatorship. In 1835, Texas militants marched on the Mexican garrison in San Antonio and took it over, causing Santa Anna to raise a force of over seven thousand soldiers. He entered Texas in 1836 in order to re-establish control over the insurrection.
It continued, however, and, on March 2, 1836, leading immigrant luminaries of the Texas Territory declared independence and formed an army commanded by General Sam Houston, just at the time that the greatly outnumbered defenders of the Alamo (who Houston had ordered to retreat before Santa Anna arrived) were futilely holding off Mexican troops for twelve days. The fort fell on March 6th. Santa Anna did not observe any rules of combat related to surrender, however, because he considered the Alamo fighters to be nothing more than pirates. The few survivors who chose to surrender were given no quarter, and he had them executed in cold blood by sword and firing squad.
General Houston knew that his rag-tag band of soldiers (only the officers had and wore uniforms) were no match for Santa Anna in direct confrontation, so he constantly retreated in order to gather more forces from amongst the settlers and consolidate his army's cohesion. America could not directly fortify him, because Texas was a self-declared, separate republic and not part of the United States.
Three weeks after the Alamo fell, Santa Anna marched on Fort Goliad to the southeast. Its commander had been directly ordered, in a written and signed directive from Houston carried to him by envoys, to leave the fort, retreat, and join Houston's army to the north. The order was defied. This led to all three hundred and thirty of Goliad's troops surrendering when Santa Anna arrived there with his overwhelming force. All of the fort's soldiers were led away on a march, while, alone and in secret, the fort's commander was summarily executed. At a watering spot, where the soldiers thought they were being relieved of thirst, Santa Anna formed a circular firing squad around them.
Word of these atrocities spread, and Houston's army became energized, larger, better armed, and more disciplined, although his constant retreat created near mutiny amongst his lieutenants. Santa Anna made a blunder and divided his troops. The main army, led by him personally and numbering one thousand two hundred soldiers, camped at the conjunction of the San Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou. General Houston, still outnumbered ten to seven, met them there, camping on the opposite side of the bayou.
Santa Anna tried to coax him into battle, but, the next morning, the army of General Houston disappeared, apparently once again in retreat mode. During a siesta later that day, the Generalissimo's forces learned the hard way that the retreat was a ruse. Houston's army attacked from the rear flank and slaughtered over six hundred Mexicans, capturing all but a handful of remaining troops via surrender; Texas only lost nine fighters in a surprise attack that lasted but eighteen minutes.
Wearing a private's uniform, Santa Anna was captured hiding in tall grass the next day. He was recognized for who he was when common soldiers saluted him as he arrived at their makeshift internment. Everyone except Houston wanted him to be immediately hanged for his murderous and ruthless atrocities, but General Sam wanted more than that: He wanted Texas. In two separate signed agreements, Santa Anna agreed to vacate the Texas territory with his troops, and, even more importantly, to grant Texas independence from Mexico. He had the power to do so, because he was Mexico's sole dictator.
The land was then called the Lone Star Republic, Territory of Texas. Sam Houston was overwhelming elected as its first president. Texas was sovereign, but for how long? Mexico would eventually try to re-take it, and that country greatly outnumbered the population of Texas. England wanted to forge a treaty with it in order to guarantee its sovereignty perpetually, but the slavery issue put a crimp into that. Houston, on two different dates, formally requested annexation to the United States, which, according to the Constitution, required a two-thirds vote of Congress for annexation.
Texas, despite being overwhelming American, was still an independent nation-state. Led by senators from abolitionist states, the U. S. Senate rejected Houston's first two requests, and Texas, being thus humiliated and rebuffed, was on the way toward signing a tripartite alliance with Great Britain, which included Mexico as part of the treaty.
In late 1844, President John Tyler, a pro-slavery southern Democrat in the last days of his presidency, tried to ram through a third annexation attempt. The Constitution required that annexation be approved by treaty, the aforementioned two-thirds vote, but the motion went down in flames. In order to undercut Britain's attempt to halt westward expansion of the United States—which would throw an irreversible monkey wrench into its “Manifest Destiny”--expediency took precedence over the Constitution. Texas entered the Union during the presidency of James Polk, a pro-slavery Democrat. Rather than constitutional treaty, a motion for Texas statehood was passed by a secular manipulation, by a highly-questionable joint resolution of Congress on December 29, 1845, by only a majority vote.
Quotes from the books of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada are copyright by the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust